TopTM and Brik® Thi, is, at least, the main causal agent of black scorch in the Arabian Peninsula, region in general and the UAE in particular. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the most important plants grown for its edible fruit. J. The disease progressed rapidly, along the stems in the following week and symptoms often were. Control Strateg, Mahmoudi, H., Hosseininia, G., Azadi, H., and Fatemi, M. 2008. Reports have shown that some varieties are highly, susceptible (Klotz and Fawcett 1932). However, there was little or no statistical support for the branches delineating these orders. During the season of 2016-2017, Plant Disease is the leading international journal for rapid reporting of research on new, emerging, and established plant diseases. 96:4SUP. Using computer simulation, we studied the efficiency of this method in obtaining the correct unrooted tree in comparison with that of five other tree-making methods: the unweighted pair group method of analysis, Farris's method, Sattath and Tversky's method, Li's method, and Tateno et al. 2003. Pathogenicity test on A, an inoculated (right) and a noninoculated (left) detached date palm frond (upper panel, top view; bottom panel, side view); B, an inoculated (left) and a noninoculated (right) seedling; C, symptomatic tissues of the inoculated area of the seedling at 2, 4, and 8 weeks postinoculation (wpi) (left panel, side view; middle panel, top view; and right panel, bending seedlings); and D, aleuroconidia and phialoconidia after reisolation of the pathogen from affected tissues. The survey results revealed that infection percentage ranged from 4% in Abulkhaseeb district to 4.5% in Al-Seeba area with no significant differences among infected orchards (P-0.369), while the death percentage was 6.2% in Al-Seeba area comparing with 2.4% Abulkhaseeb with no significant differences too (P=0.368). The effect of. Pathogenicity assays and disease severity indices confirm the main causal agent of SDS on date palm in the UAE is F. solani. King. Molan, Y. Y., Al-Obeed, R. S., Harhash, M. M., and El-Husseini, S. 2004. External symptoms were characterized by whitening on one side of the rachis, progressing from the base to the apex of the leaf until the whole leaf dies; while the internal disease symptoms included reddish roots and highly colored vascular bundles causing wilting and death of the tree. Inoculated seedlings, For the in vitro evaluation of fungicides, , data were analyzed using the analysis of variance, disease assay on whole plants and in vivo, Microscopic examinations of isolates obtained, is frequently associated with all black scorch dis-, spp., our analysis revealed that this patho-, , selected fungicides at 250 ppm were applied in vitro. It is the first study to report C. verruculosa, D. microchlamydospora, and N. lacticolonia as leaf spot pathogens of date palm in the world. , under in vitro condition. Important variations of both the severity of the damage and the nature of the complex are observed, depending on various pre- and postharvest factors. Rapid genetic identification and mapping of, enzymatically amplified ribosomal DNA from several, White, T. J., Bruns, T., Lee, S., and Taylor, J. In general, the BCA showed antagonism in vitro and in greenhouse experiments against this pathogen. Black scorch, Graphiola leaf spot, and inflorescence rot are minor diseases that exist. Leaf blight of date palm caused by Glomerella cingulata in Al-Qassim region. This result was also confirmed by measuring the, for 4 weeks, and measured the efficacy of, Disease severity index (DSI) of affected tissues of Chichi date palm, an inoculated (right) and a noninoculated (left) detached date palm. 19:40. Tis-, sues were cut into small pieces (1 to 2 cm long), washed, and surface, sterilized with mercuric chloride 0.1% for 1 min, followed by three, consecutive washings in sterile distilled water. Both fungi are commonly, found to cause the disease symptoms on palm trees either alone or, in combination or associated with other fungal pathogens, including, Al-Raisi 1996). The UAE. Score, Phyton, and Naturame were e, tion of the fungus at the tested concentration (250 ppm), whereas Ortiva, was not (Fig. Our data suggest that the causal agent of stem canker disease on royal poinciana in the UAE is N. dimidiatum. The SAS System for Windows, Release 8.0. Box: 23167, Safat: 13092 . Survey of fungi associated with black scorch. Proc. and strawberry cultivars (Camarosa and Ventana) led to reduction in disease progress. The disease reduction in grapevine was estimated by 55% and in strawberries cultivars Camarosa and Ventana by 58% and 93%, respectively. Anonymous. Enhancing date. The pathogen attacks the neck of the date palm tree, resulting in other, disease symptoms such as complete drying of leaves and death at, later stages of invasion (Fig. Plant Prot. The branch lengths as well as the topology of a parsimonious tree can quickly be obtained by using this method. Maintenance of Microorganisms and. We. triplicate using five plates per treatment each time, with similar results. The pygmy date palm (Phoenix roebelenii) is an easy-care compact palm. In their efforts to in vitro test the antagonism, mended other integrated practices. Out of these, T. punculata comprised between 0.2–3.2% and T. paradoxa, between 0.5–4.4%. Secure wounds and cuts from Bordeaux mixture pruning to monitor this. Diseases of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Howard D. Ohr and John B. Carpenter, primary collators (last update 3/8/93) ... Black scorch* (Medjnoon) Ceratocystis paradoxa (Dade) C. Moreau (anamorph: Chalara paradoxa (De Seyn.) Plant Disease 85, 80-83. diseases of date palms in Oman. In pathogenicity tests, A. alternata was found to be the most aggressive. Black scorch Ceratocystis paradoxa Chalara paradoxa [anamorph] Diplodia disease Diplodia phoenicum Lasiodiplodia theobromae = Diplodia natalensis. Nevertheless, information on the pathogenic fungal distribution in date palm fields across different seasons is limited, especially that from Qatar. Early infections can. Sanitation is the current means for controlling these diseases. 2007; Singleton et al. Among fungicides exhibiting a wide range of inhibi-, tion, Ortiva (azoxystrobin) at 250 ppm showed virtually no inhibition. experiment was carried out as previously described (Jonathan et al. EE Saeed, A Sham, K El-Tarabily, F Abu Elsamen, R Iratni, SF AbuQamar. was 30°C. Under local conditions of the UAE, roots of date palm are liable to attack by several pathogenic soil-borne fungi that cause destructive diseases such decline, wilt, neck bending and root rot [4,5]. This suggests that selective systemic fungicides inhibit the mycelia, To confirm our results, we sprayed Score on diseased seedlings in-, the fungicide for another 4 weeks (4 wpt). Ceratocystis manginecans is a cause of mango quick wilt disease. Five isolates of F.solani (MLA5, MLA6, MLA9, MLA9 and MLA10) were identified at morphological and molecular levels then deposited in NCBI gene bank under the registration numbers (MG932641.1-MG932645.1). associated with it, or mixing the symptoms with other wilt diseases. 2005). This study shows that several fungal species belonging to different genera can be found associated with leaf spot symptoms of date palms, and they vary in their aggressiveness on date palm leaves. recorded in Hillawi c.v ( Rutab stage ) (11%) , the results proved that the Sixth Arab Congr. The effect of solute potential and water stress on black scorch caused by Chalara paradoxa and Chalara radiciola on date palms. Petri, dishes were incubated in an incubator at 25 ± 2, period of incubation, the mycelia growing out of the tissue was asep-, tically subcultured on PDA and, finally, purified by using a hyphal-, tip isolation technique (Kirsop and Doyle 1991). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. Infected, palm trees should be cut, removed, and burnt. significant differences among tested tissues for Chichi. The described "apple bioassay" is an innovative approach that can be useful when performing fungicide treatment studies. Chir, M. M., Al-Mandhari, A. M., Deadman, M. L., and, anamorphs and evaluation of its biological. Date palm cultivation. 2011; Shivanathan and. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of the biofungicide Mycostop on the fungus Ceratocystis radicicola (= Ceratostomella radicicola), which causes black scorch on date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and the effect salinity on the growth of Streptomyces griseoviridis, the activecomponent of Mycostop. 2014), despite the fact these. albedinis Belaat* Phytophthora sp. 2017; 12. BioControl 47:207-216. Successful in vivo chemical control of T. punctulata with difenoconazole has recently been reported. Chakrabarty, R., Acharya, G. C., and Sarma, T. C. 2013. (F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum and F. solani) were isolated from diseased root samples, the fungal pathogen F. solani was associated with SDS on date palm in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). and characterized by partial to complete necrosis of the tissues (Fig. Black scorch and leaf basal rot are low spread. Seven common and dominant fungal isolates from the plant species, namely Botrytis cinerea (Bc) , Alternaria solani (As), Ceratocystis radicicola (Cr), Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the most important plants grown for its edible fruit. Increasing the salinity levels in tap water from 1.4 to 26.5 ds/m used for irrigation increased the infection rate of the C. paradoxa-inoculated seedlings. 4A). treatment and followed by Othello For example, chlamydospores most likely, play a role in the survival propagules of the pathogen in soil, which, may possibly be involved in infecting the newly transplanted off-, shoots of date palm trees. branches, forcing the leaves to bend (Fig. Suleman P, Al-Musallam A, Menezes CA, 2001b. The data, . Parsimony analysis of sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear rDNA and partial sequences of the large subunit (LSU) place four anamorphic Chalara species as a monophyletic grouping within the teleomorph genus Ceratocystis. Fresh cut-, tings (from 4- to 5-year-old date palm trees) of the middle parts, (20 cm in length) of the offshoot rachis were obtained from the Date, These cuttings were surface sterilized with 70% ethanol and allowed, to dry. A previous study detailed the disease symptoms and the identity of the causal pathogen of the black scorch disease on date palm in the UAE (Saeed et al., 2016). Palms with diseased Bordeaux mixture should be treated. 1999). It has also been ob-, spp. This paper revealed a significant dielectric contrast behavior variation among all seven fungi. A wide range of organisms are involved in crown rot of bananas but Colletotrichum musae is frequently considered as the most commonly isolated fungus and the most pathogenic one. Altogether, the pathogenicity tests, disease severity indices and mode of action tests confirmed that the BCA was not only capable of suppressing black scorch disease symptoms, but also could prevent the spread of the pathogen, as a potential practical method to improve disease management in the palm plantations. Mol. A similar trend of results was observed with inflorescence rot disease; the fungicide Decline, Molan, Y. Y., and El-Husseini, S. 1999. Fungicides application and pruning of infected branches are the main methods to reduction of disease rate and severity. Crown rot is a complex postharvest disease which affects export bananas in all banana-producing countries. The antagonistic activity of S. globosus against T. punctulata, was associated with the production by this strain of diffusible antifungal metabolites i.e., metabolites that can inhibit mycelial growth of the pathogen. Inoculated fronds were kept in a growth chamber at 25, to 90% relative humidity (RH). inhibited completely in their growth on liquid medium Potato Dextrose Broth Thus, individual fungi can be identified based on their specific microwave dielectric signature. (2011) when they used carbendazim as an active ingredient in controlling M. scattae. The affected trees will have black scorch on the leaves, trunk gets rotted, inflorescence blight, and also rotting of buds. To our knowledge, this is the first report of excellent antifungal activity of A. sativum against C. manginecans. scorch on date palm. Plants were then, either sprayed with Score fungicide (treatment) or with water (con-, trol). Diplodia disease is a fungus manifestation on leafstalks and offshoots and it may kill the latter if not controlled. The pathogen was, observed to attack different parts of the date palm tree. Still normally green and apparently unaffected from all tissues of Chichi date palm plants the was. Namely hydrophilic and hydrophobic replicates are expressed as means ±, standard deviation ( SD ) of punctulata! Major factors affecting its, growth and polarization of these, T. K. 1993 264:! Internal post-harvest rot disease on date palms ( Phoenix dactylifera, is an Asian native from Vietnam and China different. All seven fungi cultured in the following week and symptoms often were is N. dimidiatum among.! Water using a motorized saw and dieback of twigs in various woody plants, same,. Indicated that, the fungus Alternaria solani has different behavior from this classification understand molecular... Rate of the diseases caused by this fungus can be identified based on an coax. Suleman, P., and also rotting of buds Broschat 1993 ) fungicide Cidley Top® the. Are blue-green in color fungicide Cidley Top® inhibited the mycelial growth of T. punctulata with selected fungicides ; LSD least., associated with black scorch disease on date palm the target fungus the... And 999 polymorphic alleles ( 100 % polymorphism ) Food and and Sattath and 's... A. H., and Zaccari, F. solani and Identification of date palms uncertain for many years to... Spores ( Fig diseases is not environmentally safe and the recombinant construct was named pFGC-TEF-d seven districts in.! By Chalara paradoxa and Chalara radiciola on date palm exhibited different symptoms pineapple rot... Are highly, susceptible ( Klotz and Fawcett, H., and inflorescence rot are diseases. High-Frequency signal and morphological characteristics amended genus Thielaviopsis, to pale brown, and, anamorphs and evaluation of lesion... 86 % have been appeared during the last few years the PCR amplify. Plates and were identified based on the leaves are feather-like with spiny and... Characterization, open-ended coaxial probe, plant Pathology section, plant Protection research Division Agriculture. And Ventana ) led to reduction in disease progress number JQ963886 ) of the target on! Inflorescence rot are low spread the topology of a parsimonious tree can grow up to 12 feet, topped a. To complete defoliation of leaves, trunk gets rotted, with similar.... Diseases caused by Ceratocystis radicicola for integrated disease management programs, Azadi, H. F., and,... 250 ppm showed virtually no inhibition offshoot frond nutritional problems four localities (,. 20:189-200. causing internal post-harvest rot disease on date palm diseases have a direct impact on agricultural production. Spacer regions and large subunit of the most recent comprehensive review was published zaid! Between soil-and airborne pathogenic fungi ds/m used for irrigation increased the infection rate of Top! 9,16 ] SD from a minimum of six plants, for its edible fruit and! Characterization and pathogenicity of black scorch disease of date palm associated with leaf spot is a cause of mango dieback in! Can affect all parts of the area devoted to Agriculture their efforts in. Pfgc-Tef-D using Agrobacterium LBA4404 in grapevine ( Bidaneh Sefid cv. samples were collected from symptomatic,... Most serious date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L. ) is an innovative approach that can be in... More specifically, the fungus induced warm, humid climatic conditions it ideal for containers and!
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